IoT M2M blog

The home of free hints and tips about wireless IoT / M2M

M2M FAQ, hints, tips

IoT M2M Cookbook – The outlook for embedded antenna design

GSM PCB antenna simulation

The IoT M2M Cookbook contains a simulation of a dual F antenna for cellular. This antenna has been customized several times by customers, or by us on behalf of customers. The Gillette order button using this base design and described in the book supports NB-IoT, LTE-M and GSM from about 750 MHz with 960 MHz […]

NB-IoT and Sigfox comparison – number of operators in Germany and the States

Cellular operators versus Sigfox in US

In order to minimize the risk, the developers of IoT devices try to avoid single source components and services. For microcontrollers and radio modules it becomes difficult, but mostly similar components from different manufacturers are used. The LPWAN technology has to be chosen sooner or later. NB-IoT and LTE-M are offered by different network operators […]

LPWAN gateway on a farm in Australia – diffraction of radio wave

LPWAN with diffraction in detail

When a rectilinear radio wave hits an edge, it changes its course. This effect is called diffraction. By diffraction, we understand a bending effect during the propagation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The diffraction causes a change from the straight-line propagation of the waves and occurs at obstructions, mountains or buildings. A simple, free simulation […]

LPWAN gateway in the middle of the North Sea – Fresnel zone

LPWAN Helgoland radio link on 169 m and 1 m mast

Low frequencies in the 900 MHz range are a blessing and a curse for LPWAN. The low frequencies spread further in the open field and penetrate the walls of buildings better. But the curse of the low frequencies is the much wider Fresnel zone. To ensure undisturbed transmission, the space between the transmitter and receiver […]

NB-IoT and Sigfox comparison – number of base stations / gateways

In order to understand why more base stations automatically represent a better network, some explanations are necessary. Sigfox has planned 2400 gateways for Germany. These 2400 gateways are confronted with 24,000 LTE base stations from Vodafone and approximately the same amount from Deutsche Telekom. These 48,000 LTE base stations do not all need to be […]

NB-IoT and Sigfox comparison – upload and download capacity

NB-IoT & Sigfox comparsion - upload and download

The message container at LPWAN limits the application in the number of possible bytes per transfer. In addition to the physical container, there is always a logical limit. In the European unlicensed band we have one percent duty cycle in the upload. Therefore, only 36 seconds per hour are available for the protocol header and […]

How to calculate the link budget in LPWAN

How to calculate the link budget

The link budget is the total of all losses and gains from the transmission of a radio wave. A wave is amplified or attenuated by the antenna.  During the transmission of a signal between transmitter and receiver, data can be lost. The study of losses and gains is therefore important to calculate the reliability and […]

Harald Naumann © 2014 Frontier Theme