Simulation of a GSM quad-band antenna

The simulation is taken from my IoT / M2M Cookbook. About 30 % of the book is about the integration of antennas into an enclosure. The antenna structure is explained in detail in the book and can be easily reproduced. The green to yellow marked area shows the radiated power from 0 dBi to 1.64 […]

Return Loss and VSWR for your antenna

If an RF signal is transmitted to an antenna, a part of the signal will be reflected. The return loss in the antenna data sheet indicates how much energy is reflected by the antenna. For mobile radio antennas, for LTE Cat-NB1, GSM, UMTS or LTE, a return loss of -6 dB at the band ends […]

Antenna Return Loss by VNA

The upper left graph illustrates the measurement of a filter with two ports at the Vector Network Analyser (VNA). Port 1 is feeding the device under test and is measuring the reflection. Port 2 is measuring the received energy. The lower right graph is showing a typical return loss measurement of an antenna. Has this […]

Principle of operation of a VNA

To explain the principle of operation of a VNA, I use an optical lens for comparison. Light arriving at the lens is partly reflected. However, a large part of the light is directed through it. The part of the light that is reflected and the part that is transmitted can be measured. A VNA measures […]

Antenna gain and beam angle

Parameters of antennas In addition to the mechanical dimensions and the type of connection, data sheets for antennas specify various electrical and physical parameters. 1. Antenna gain The antenna gain is a relative quantity that refers to a reference antenna. The reference value is the receiving field strength of the selected antenna in receiving direction […]

The 4 Cent antenna for classic Bluetooth, WiFi, ZigBee and more

The 4 cent antenna works perfectly. Two coins with a value of 2 Euro Cent at the end of a coaxial cable form a good antenna. We tried the same with coins valued at 1 cent and 5 cents. There is always an antenna. The 2 x 2 Cent antenna for 2400 MHz is not […]

Design process of your wireless IoT application

This is an example of a typical design process with the various steps leading to a ready-to-use wireless IoT product. Step 1 – Read the IoT/M2M Cookbook The IoT / M2M Cookbook is intended to help developers of  wireless IoT / M2M devices to save some time and perhaps to provide some inspiring ideas to […]

What is akorIoT?

akorIoT Micro & Nano was world’s first NB-IoT adapter with the freedom to select other cellular radios out of a range of modules without a SIM lock. You can also select any MCU kit with an Arduino compatible R3  or Nano expansion slot.  “akor” is the Proto-Celtic word for “open” akorIoT was the world’s first […]

NB-IoT throughput versus antenna gain

Because a picture is worth a thousand words, as promised here is the NB-IoT throughput table in a graph. At a 144 dB link budget, we will reach 21 kbps. If the link budget is even higher, the transmission power will be reduced. The 3 coloured curves show the 3 operating modes of NB-IoT. The […]

NB-IoT throughput – table

NB-IoT has a very high throughput at the top end. At the lower end it is faster than other LPWA techniques. For LoRaWAN, Weightless and NB-IoT the distance and the data throughput also regulate the speed. In this lecture we will only consider NB-IoT due to the limited talk time. At first glance, the table […]